Advantages and disadvantages of ultrasonography

Ultrasonography Advantages and Disadvantages. Info: 3813 words (15 pages) Essay Published: 19th Apr 2018 in Sciences. Reference this Share this: Facebook. Twitter. Reddit. LinkedIn. WhatsApp ULTRASONOGRAPHY. Ultrasonography is a sound based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualising subcutaneous body structures including muscles joints. Ultrasonography has multiple advantages over traditional radiologic imaging modalities when used for interventional procedures. It allows improved visualization of the anatomy while avoiding ionizing radiation and risks associated with contrast use Following are the disadvantages of Ultrasound: ➨It has poor penetration through bone or air. Moreover it has limited penetration in obese patients. These are the disadvantages in imaging domain Wider use: Ultrasound is applied in many diversified areas like in medicine, imaging, communication, time tracking of objects and device, cleaning, and in fluid mechanics. 4. Capture clear images: It can capture clear images of deep tissue which can't be clearly captured by x-rays. A laptop-sized ultrasound machine carries out the procedure. 5 Advantages to sonography include the ability to be performed rapidly at the bedside by the ED physician, capacity to image other structures (eg, aorta, pancreas, liver), identification of..

Ultrasonography Advantages and Disadvantage

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Ultrasonography - 1401

Disadvantages of ultrasound:  Ultrasound results may identify a potential area of concern that is not malignant. These false-positive results could lead to more procedures, including biopsies, that are not necessary Ultrasound elastography is a technique currently under development. Its use in clinical practice is complicated because of the wide range of techniques used by the different manufacturers and the parameters proposed to characterise tissues. A comparative analysis on five ultrasound diagnostic system Disadvantages Ultrasound therapy is not as much detail as X rays, it can't be used in areas that contain gas (such as lungs), it doesn't pass through bones, it can be wrong in detecting physical abnormalities, and it can affect the fetus brain development in mice, so could in humans

Ultrasound therapy (US) features, types, advantages

Advantages of Ultrasound Disadvantages of Ultrasoun

(PDF) Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal diseases

Ultrasound has many uses in medicine- such as breaking down kidney stones and measuring the rate of blood flow- all of which are are extremely helpful. They may be dangerous on the fetus, however we have no such evidence of this and they are much safer than other ways- e.g. x rays. Also, it is painless, quick and non invasive Physical limitations of ultrasound are gas (post-operative abdomen, ileus or gastric dilation) and bone, though bone is less of an issue in the abdomen. Advantages of radiographs: the big picture, technical ease, familiarity with interpretation, and ability to view the GI tract, diagnosing free gas

This tutorial compares the advantages and disadvantages of using ultrasound, x-ray photography and CT (computer tomography) scans to form images for medical. One of the key advantages of ultrasound is that it offers a real-time look at internal organs. This is most often utilized with pets who are pregnant and to gauge the health of puppies and kittens as they develop. Other benefits of ultrasound include Power Doppler is a new method of ultrasound flow imaging the utility of which is currently under investigation. This technique creates a flow map based on the integrated power of the Doppler spectrum, rather than mean Doppler frequency. Power Doppler imaging is inherently more sensitive in terms of Ultrasound, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography, is an imaging method that uses sound waves to create an image of a part of the body. A computer program is used to analyze the echoes of sound waves sent into the body and generates an image on screen. 1. Unlike mammograms, which use radiation. In cancer biology: A cancer treatment in.

Ultrasound provides significant advantages over MRI and CT scans to evaluate the postoperative shoulder, diagnostic evaluation is most commonly performed to exclude rotator cuff tear after rotator cuff repair or total shoulder arthroplasty Advantages of Breast Ultrasound. Non-invasive and Painless. Easily Available and Harmless. Real Time Images. Disadvantages. Overall a Helpful Tool. Breast ultrasound is an investigative test that uses sound waves to diagnose various abnormalities in the breast. It is also known as sonography. This technology is quite effective and easily available The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR), applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules. The retrospective evaluation by two observers of volumes of 71 thyroid nodules (55 benign, 16 cancers) was performed using a new TSVR technique The presence of gas also affects the visual quality of ultrasound images, as gas induces poor quality image output. Poor quality images are difficult for medical professionals to interpret, which often means another form of diagnostic procedure is necessary. Body Size. Another disadvantage of ultrasound technology involves body size of the patient Ultrasonography Advantages and Disadvantages. Published Date: 19 Apr 2018. Disclaimer: This essay has been written and submitted by students and is not an example of our work. Please click this link to view samples of our professional work witten by our professional essay writers. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed.


Ultrasound: advantages, disadvantages, and controversies. Eber J, Villaseñor C. Nurse Practitioner Forum, 01 Dec 1991, 2(4): 239-242 PMID: 1840986 . Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with. 1. Radiol Technol. 2016 Mar-Apr;87(4):455-9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Screening Breast Ultrasonography. Warner L. PMID: 26952067 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) can serve as an excellent imaging modality for the musculoskeletal clinician. Although MRI is more commonly ordered in the United States for musculoskeletal problems, both of these imaging modalities have advantages and disadvantages and can be viewed as complementary rather than adversarial 3. Advantages of transthoracic ultrasonography. Firstly, there are general advantages of US examination compared with other radiological examinations, considering availability, cost, time, lack of irradiation and bedside examination in critical patients Other advantages have also been touched on including strong demand for workers in this sector in future, job security, good benefit packages, the opportunity for ultrasound career development and the satisfaction of helping patients as part of a dedicated team of health care professionals. Career development choices for interested and qualified sonographers can include specialization.

Pros and Cons of Ultrasound - Pros an Con

Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Testing Techniques: Training is more extensive than other methods. More expensive than other methods. Difficult to use on thin materials. Part Geometry can cause complications. Needs relatively smooth surface to couple transducer. Must know velocity of part and have a reference to calibrate against for equipment set-up Benefits. Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or injections). Occasionally, an ultrasound exam may be temporarily uncomfortable, but it is almost never painful. Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not use any ionizing radiation The reason why an ultrasound is used so much across Canada and the rest of the world is because of all the advantages that come with using it. Here are some of the many advantages that come with using a sonogram: · Can be used to treat heart problems (ex. blood clots and functioning of valves) by using an echocardiogra Advantages And Disadvantages Of Medical Imaging. II. MEDICAL IMAGE COMPRESSION. An image is an array, or a matrix, of square pixels arranged in columns and rows. Images may be black and white colour, 2-D, 3- D, high pixel, low pixel, etc. An image consists of a rectangular array of dots called pixels. The size of the image is given as width X. What Are the Disadvantages of Being a Sonographer?. Sonographers operate special equipment that utilizes sound waves to create images of a person's organs and helps doctors detect and diagnose medical conditions. They commonly work in hospitals or medical clinics and conduct ultrasound, sonogram, or echocardiogram.

Benefits. Carotid ultrasound is noninvasive and painless. Ultrasound is widely available, easy-to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Carotid ultrasound exams are extremely safe and do not use any ionizing radiation. Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images II. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of cholelithiasis. Advantages. Very high sensitivity and specificity for detecting gallstones. Ultrasound is safe.

Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for assessing the health of a fetus developing inside the mother's womb (i.e. the mid pregnancy ultrasound) Some other examples of common ultrasound sites include many of the internal organs, from the liver, pancreas, gallbladder to the heart, as well as blood vessels, muscles, ligaments, tendons. Therefore, ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique for the air-filled bowel or organs obscured by the bowel. Click to see full answer. Furthermore, what are the disadvantages of an ultrasound? Increased depth means a lower frequency is required for optimal imaging. As a consequence there is a lower resolution

What are the advantages and disadvantages of

Advantages include its use of a single probe for multiple functions, small size, relatively low cost, and good image quality in most functions. Disadvantages include large probe footprint, lower, though adequate, cardiac imaging quality, frequent overheating, and reliance on internet-based cloud storage, but these were surmountable Other disadvantages of using ultrasound to guide procedures include the inexperience of ultrasound personnel, the comfort level of the radiologist and/or sonologist with other imaging modalities, and the need to use fixed angles when needle guides are used on the transducers Ultrasonic testing (UT) is a non-destructive testing techniques based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the object or material tested.. Ultrasonic Testing. In most common UT applications, very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz, and occasionally up to 50 MHz, are transmitted into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials

What are the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound

  1. Channel - is an independent signal path consisting of a transducer element, delay, and possibly other electronic components.Single element or group of elements that transmits or receives as one. Array - an transducer assembly with more than one element. Modern transducer contain multiple active elements. Automatic Transducer - real time transducers. Give rapid and dynamic imaging
  2. Disadvantages. One of the disadvantages of breast ultrasound is that it cannot replace mammogram, especially in women above 40. Moreover, breast ultrasound is unable to screen many of the cancers. This is why, in most of the cases, ultrasound scan is followed by other diagnostic tests like, MRI, mammogram, or breast biopsy
  3. al and transvaginal ultrasound should complement each other, it is necessary to take into account the advantages and disadvantages of each method
  4. Summary. Intracoronary ultrasound imaging is able to provide real-time high resolution images of sections of the arterial wall. It is particularly interesting for analyzing, both qualitatively and quantitatively, features of vascular pathology that are inaccessible to other modalities
  5. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a modality complementary to TRUS with advantages for evaluating the mesorectum, external sphincter, and deep pelvic inflammation, three-dimensional ultrasonography improves the detection and characterization of perianal fistulas and therefore plays a crucial role in optimal treatment planning

Ultrasound has limited use in head and neck region as sound waves are absorbed by bone. The use of ultrasound is restricted to superficial structures. Also refer advantages and disadvantages of Ultrasound >>. Advantages and Disadvantages of other Sensor Type Advantages And Disadvantages Of Veterinary B-ultrasound In Animal Kidney Stone Examination:The biggest advantage of veterinary B ultrasound relative to veterinary X-ray positioning is that there is no X-ray radiation, easy to operate,and can provide three-dimensional information in a timely manner,which is more conducive to improving the hit rate of the target renal pelvis,and is also.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Liver Fibrosis Evaluation Methods. These techniques are based on classical tools such as ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. These include transient elastography (TE), magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), acoustic radiation force impulses [ARFI, 2D-Shear wave. An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves on the breast and converts them into images. A mammography uses low-dose X-ray to produce breast images known as a mammogram.. As a rule of thumb, a breast ultrasound is more accurate in women younger than 45 years. A mammography is preferred in women older than 45 years Ultrasound 1. N U R A I N A B I N T I A B K A D I R ULTRASOUND AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 2. CONTENTS • Introduction • Components • Appearances of different organs in imaging • Uses • Advantages and disadvantages • Breast ultrasound 3

CT scans take 60 secs for scan and hence body movement does not effect scan. Scan time for ct scan is generally 30 se however. Whereas ultrasound takes 10 - 15 mins for scanning. Body Parts that they can scan. CT scanner can scan bony structures in the body while ultrasounds are used for internal organs. Advantages and Disadvantages Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Disadvantages. 430 Words 2 Pages. Contrast enhanced ultrasound is a new technique that uses microbubble-based contrast agents to improve the echogenicity of blood and tissue vascularity. This offers several advantages over the alternative imaging modalities like CT, MRI and Nuclear medicine. Potential Disadvantages of Early Pregnancy Diagnosis. Producers should realize that stress to heifers early in pregnancy can result in embryonic loss. Research has shown a pregnancy loss of 1-3.5% when palpation or ultrasound are used for pregnancy diagnosis at 40 - 75 days of gestation Advantages and Disadvantages of IVF . In vitro fertilization was the first successful technique in 1978 by Dr. Steptow, a British gynecologist, and Dr. Edward, a researcher, and a child named Louise, who became pregnant at that time, is already 28 years old. increase Disadvantages of Phased Array Ultrasound Testing. Despite its many advantages, phased array ultrasound testing also has a few drawbacks: Applicability. While PAUT has a wide range of abilities, it's not a preferred testing method for the detection of surface cracks, metal fatigue, or bolt hole inspections compared to eddy current testing.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ultrasound Imaging. As with any technology used in research, ultrasound imaging has advantages and disadvantages. A significant advantage of ultrasound imaging over other research techniques is that it is noninvasive. Its advantages over other imaging techniques relate to its capability, versatility, portability. 3 Advantages (and 1 Disadvantage) of MRgFUS for Parkinson's Disease Tremors. In 2016, Forbes Magazine carried an article on MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) for essential tremor (ET). Citing positive results from clinical trials, the article explained that The treatment doesn't require any implants, incisions or ionizing radiation i.As the news spread, Parkinson's disease (PD.

Ultrasonography (USG) is a popular diagnostic modality used in medical practice. The test has been around for decades, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers it reasonably safe for use in most individuals, including pregnant women.. The USG technique can be used to diagnose medical conditions (diagnostic) or treat medical conditions (therapeutic) A transsphincteric fistula using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. This video clip shows a transsphincteric fistula. 3D volume rendering images show a. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound is only used as a therapy for prostate cancer when cancerous tissue remains inside the prostate capsule. This therapy is not suitable for cancer that has moved outside the prostate. What are the advantages and disadvantages of HIFU? The advantages of HIFU therapy include advantages and disadvantages The main advantage of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided sampling is that compared with surgical sampling, EBUS is a minimally-invasive, safe procedure that can be performed on an outpatient basis using local anesthesia and moderate sedation Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal diseases: advantages and disadvantages . By Min Ju Kim. Abstract. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for Epub ahead of print evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases..

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Ultrasound - 854 Words

  1. Introduction. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincter, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases [].Exact knowledge of the normal ultrasonographic (US) anatomy of the rectal wall and anal canal provides an important foundation for identifying abnormalities
  2. Make the most informed Doppler imaging decisions possible by gaining a thorough understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of using Doppler ultrasound, as well as the basic principles behind its techniques and technologies.; Acquire optimal images and avoid errors with the help of detailed protocols and high-quality, full-color illustrations throughout
  3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Advantages. Ultrasound is safe, fast, and cheap

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ultrasound Services Advantages and Disadvantages of Ultrasound Services Introduction Ultrasound (U.S.) is a safe, non-invasive, diagnostic tool widely used in health care. In ambulatory care, especially in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, NPS are often suppliers designated for research dollars. This raises. N/A Worst Weak OK Good Great. advantages of ultra sound is to see inside the body and to get things through sound waves. disadvantages of ultrasound is that it might not help you in anyways possible. Answer by yucky bueno. Submitted on 10/4/2005 Ashokkumar M. (2016) Advantages, Disadvantages and Challenges of Ultrasonic Technology. In: Ultrasonic Synthesis of Functional Materials. SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science Frequently Asked Questions. Through transmission was used in the early days of ultrasonic testing and is still used in plate and bar production. A probe on one side of a component transmits (T) an ultrasonic pulse to a receptor (R) probe on the other side. The absence of a pulse coming to the receiver indicates a defect The most common CXR indication was interval change (37%) and finding central line (65%). Pocket ultrasound demonstrated overall good concordance with CXR ranging from 77% for pleural effusion to 92% for pneumonia. Additionally, the pocket ultrasound examination appeared to anticipate resolution of pulmonary edema prior to the CXR

advantages, disadvantages, and conclusion - ultrasoun

Spatial compound imaging combines multiple lines of sight to form a single composite image at real-time frame rates. The ultrasound beam is steered by a different set of predetermined angles, typically within 20 degrees from the perpendicular. One benefit of the use of spatial compound imaging is the reduction of angle-dependent artifacts. Taking the time to look at the different advantages and disadvantages of a three or four dimensional ultrasound can help you to determine if it is right for you. One of the most common advantages to having this procedure done is the fact that it helps to increase the bond that the mother and father build with their unborn baby The relative advantages and disadvantages of radiographic and ultrasonic studies in foreign body detection and localization are discussed. The value of ultrasonography in finding radiolucent orbital foreign bodies and its clear superiority in the localization of foreign bodies with respect to the walls of the eye is demonstrated by several. Disadvantages of m - mode echocardiography, Biology. Assignment Help: Various structures are seen in two-dimensional planes; hence mental conceptualization is still required because the heart is three-dimensional. Now, newer technology has evolved and live three-dimensional echocardiography is a reality Imaging Modalities: Advantages and Disadvantages. Transthoracic echocardiography does have limitations. Ultrasound is user-dependent, so it is the least reproducible cross-sectional modality for imaging the heart. Air in the lung surrounding at least three sides of the heart scatters the beam and makes it very difficult to evaluate.

Indications and Advantages The biggest advantage of lithotripsy is that it is a non-invasive procedure.It carries far fewer risks than surgery, which requires an open incision. This procedure is best suited for people with small kidney stones that are easily visualized on an x-ray Benefits. The rapid advances in clinical radiology technology and theory have dramatically improved the diagnosis and treatment of illness and injury. It can eliminate the need for exploratory surgery. It is used to determine when a patient needs surgery. Interventional radiology, which involves treatment as well as diagnosis, involves less.

Advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound guided - Temen

The Advantages of Being An Ultrasound Technician. December 7, 2018 By Michael Smith. An ultrasound technician is also known as medical sonographer. He/She is responsible in the technicalities involved in the medical field as he takes charge in using the ultrasound machine. He is also expected to be an expert in ultrasonography Advantages and Disadvantages. The point to point transmission and reception of TV and radio signals is affected by many variables. Atmospheric moisture; solar wind; physical obstructions, such as mountains and buildings; and time of day all affect the signal transmission and the degradation of signal reception With the advancing technologies, ultrasound is now widely used in the field of veterinary ranging from disease assessment to immediate treatment. The advantages of ultrasound over other diagnostic tools have made it to be widely used by the veterinarians. Better diagnosis and treatment of animals has now become easier with ultrasound devices. Ultrasound is used as a complementary tool in. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound compared to other imaging modalities. Demonstrate the appearances of various tissues on diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound. Correctly apply ultrasound basic concepts so as to ensure proper visualization of musculoskeletal structures

Advantages and disadvantages of ultrasoun

Ultrasonic testing or UT is a technique of non-destructive testing (NDT) that is based on the propagation of the ultrasonic waves in the material or object being tested. In the most common ultrasonic testing applications, short ultrasonic pulse-waves having the center frequencies from 0.1 to 15 MHz and sometimes up to 50 MHz, are transmitte Ultrasound. Seven studies pertaining to US were reviewed. The main advantages of US in the surveillance of wear-related corrosion problems in hip arthroplasty are its relatively low cost, availability, and accessibility [1, 13, 22, 32].However, disadvantages include that it is highly operator-dependent and studies regarding its ability to accurately report synovial thicknesses and its. Advantages and Disadvantages of Ultrafiltration (210) 599-0048. Ultrafiltration. Ultrafiltration is a procedure where a semi-permeable membrane is used to pass through clean water. The process starts when hard water is being converted to soft water. At first, this semi-permeable membrane should have tiny holes which can only allow clean water. The combined PET/CT scan provides information from a single imaging session about the cells, structures, and functioning of body tissues and organs, providing a more robust diagnosis than either scan can produce independently. There are more advantages to having a PET/CT scan than there are disadvantages. What follows are some of the pros and.

Imaging Techniques for Prostate Cancer: Implications for

Ultrasound elastography: advantages, limitations and

Advantages: ·MRI is particularly useful for the scanning and detection of abnormalities in soft tissue structures in the body like the cartilage tissues and soft organs like the brain or the heart. ·There is no involvement of any kind of radiations in the MRI, so it is safe for the people who can be vulnerable to the effects of radiation The advantages of 3D ultrasound in general include: • Separation in time of image aquisition and analysis • Saving of examination room time The aim of our study is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin TSR, applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules The Disadvantages of Prenatal Testing. By: Sharon Perkins The first ultrasound functions as a screening test for major abnormalities; some of the potential problems that can be diagnosed are limb abnormalities, facial deformities or neural tube defects. Additional testing is usually needed to confirm or further diagnose a problem The advantages of ultrasound condition monitoring are many. • Users can hear in real-time the sounds of operating equipment. • Ultrasound is a localized signal, which helps operators identify a sound source. • Ultrasound provides early warning indications of failure conditions Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of chronic kidney disease. Advantages. Ultrasound is readily available

Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal diseases

Ultrasound therapy (US) features, types, advantages

Ultrasound continues to evolve additional functions, including 3D ultrasound imaging, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles. Why use ultrasound Advantages. ultrasound uses non-ionizing sound waves and has not been associated with carcinogenesis. This is particularly important for the evaluation of fetal and gonadal. 6 advantages of vascular ultrasound. 7 May 2019 Categories: Health & Medical , Blog. Vascular ultrasound involves transmitting sound waves into the body and measuring how they are reflected back by the blood cells moving within the blood vessels. Doctors may recommend such a scan if they suspect a blood clot or deep-vein thrombosis Perianal abscess. A large hypoechoic lesion is seen along the left anterior aspect in the 2 o'clock direction. This demonstrates a perianal abscess (http://d..

Ultrasound-pros and cons European Society for Paediatric

Lithotripsy Surgery: Advantages and Disadvantages. Lithotripsy is one of the latest and effective ways to treat stones present in the kidneys, bladder, and ureter. Doctors just refer this process as lithotripsy where shock waves help to break the bigger stones into small fragments present in the kidney or bladder, So that the stones easily pass. Ultrasonic welding advantages. Ultrasonic welding can be applied to a diversity of combination of the material welding, It can not applied for semiconductor materials such as high temperature caused by the pollution and the operation, It is easy to weld the heat conductivity and high conductivity materials like gold , silver , copper , aluminum , etc Ultrasonic flow meters mainly have 2 types: doppler type and transit-time type. Both of them can measure flow by transmitting and receiving ultrasound wave in pipe. Doppler flow meters can measure 'dirty liquid' and transit-time ultrasonic flow meter main measure 'clean liquid'. Both of them mainly utilizes clamp on flow transducers to detect flow in Advantages and disadvantages of 3D ultrasound of thyroid nodules including thin slice volume rendering Rafal Zenon Slapa1*, Wieslaw Stanislaw Jakubowski1, Jadwiga Slowinska-Srzednicka2, Kazimierz Tomasz Szopinski1,3 Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale an

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One of the disadvantages of the digital systems are that they are a bit more expensive. However, as covered above, that is a less and less relevant concern. Sum Up. When choosing which type of mammography machine you want, you should consider the advantages and disadvantages and weigh them up against your needs Examine the advantages and disadvantages of the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of suspected nephrolithiasis; Discuss how to use ultrasound to make the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis; Review the secondary signs one may encounter using ultrasound to evaluate for nephrolithiasis; Explore the limitations of ultrasound in the detection of kidney.